Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.), One of the most popular and popular fruits, originates from the South American region (Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay) which later spread to Central America and its surroundings because it was brought by Indians. When Christopher Columbus arrived in America in the 15th century, pineapple was brought to Spain and then spread throughout the world because European sailors brought the fruit to prevent vitamin C deficiency.
This plant, also known as ananas, has a low stature with 30 or more long leaves, with sharp edges, arranged in the form of a rosette around a thick stem. The fruit is a compound fruit, which is a combination of many true fruits, elliptical.
Pineapple cultivar varieties that are widely planted in Indonesia are Cayenne and Queen, and domestic pineapple production centers are in Lampung, West Java, North Sumatra, Riau and Central Java. In 2009 Indonesia was the fifth largest producer of pineapple in the world. Production potential per hectare in intensively cultivated pineapple plants can reach 38-75 tons / hectare.
Pineapple is rich in vitamin C, and also contains vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, folate, pantothenic acid, magnesium, manganese, potassium and beta carotene. Fresh pineapple is also known as a source of the Bromelain enzyme, which has been used in studies to determine its effectiveness in reducing joint pain, arthritis, reducing inflammation, inhibiting tumor growth and shortening recovery time after plastic surgery. However, consumption of bromelain needs to be considered because it can cause gastrointestinal disorders and trigger an allergic reaction, and because of its increased blood flow, it can cause bleeding for certain conditions, and react with anticoagulant drugs. Besides being consumed fresh, pineapple can also be cooked with various methods.
Pineapple is suitable for growing on soil with a pH of 4.5 to 6.5 and optimum development at an altitude of 100-700 masl. Pineapple can be bred by vegetative and generative methods. The vegetative methods used are root shoots, stem buds, fruit buds, fruit crowns and stem cuttings. Generative way with seeds grown with seedlings, (rarely used). Good quality seeds must come from plants that are normal, healthy and free of pests and diseases.
Reproduction of pineapple which is more commonly used is vegetative method with root shoots, stem buds, fruit buds, fruit crowns and stem cuttings. Pineapple can also be bred in a generative way with seeds, but this is rarely done.
Planting should be done at the beginning of the rainy season. Plant one healthy pineapple seedling per hole and the soil around it is compressed so that it doesn’t collapse easily.
2. Plant maintenance in beds
Thinning of pineapple is not done because the pineapple plants are specific and not tree-shaped, but need to be done so that the plants are uniform and synchronous. Other maintenance activities are weeding, piling, watering and re-fertilizing.
Harvesting of pineapple is done after pineapple is 12-24 months old, depending on the type of seed used. Seedlings originating from the crown of fruit harvesting flowers after 24 months of age, plants originating from stem shoots are harvested after 18 months of age, while root shoots are 12 months old. The characteristics of pineapple which are ready to be harvested are the crown of open fruit, the stem of the fruit shrinks, the base color of the yellow fruit, the fruit’s eyes are flatter and rounded, and the aroma of pineapple has been smelled.
The cultivation of pineapple has considerable potential to be developed because it has good taste and many benefits. The addition of BOF organic fertilizer can improve the quality of pineapple. The dosage of planting media in the nursery is in the form of fine soil, sand and BOF organic fertilizer with a ratio of 1: 1: 1, while for pineapple plants in the field as many as 2000 kg / hectare or 45 gr / planting hole for a population of 45,000 seedlings.